This could even lead to institutional variability, as in North Korea, where the post was vacant for years after the presidency of party leader Kim Il-sung. The late president was posthumously awarded the title of “Eternal President” (similar to some ancient Far Eastern traditions for assigning names and posthumous titles to the royal family). All the substantive powers as party leader, which was not created on form for four years, were inherited from his son Kim Jong-il. The post of President was officially replaced on 5 September 1998 by the Chairman of the Office of the Supreme People`s Assembly on 5 September 1998, while the position of Party Chairman as Chairman of the National Defence Commission was declared “the highest position of the State”, unlike Deng Xiaoping previously in the People`s Republic of China. The Constitution of Japan (法, Nihonkoku-Kenpé) was drafted under Allied occupation after World War II and was to replace the old militaristic and quasi-absolute monarchy system with a form of liberal parliamentary system. The Constitution explicitly entrusts all executive powers within the cabinet headed by the Prime Minister (Articles 65 and 66) and the Regional Parliament (Articles 67 and 69). The emperor is defined in the Constitution as the “symbol of the state and the unity of the people” (Article 1) and is recognized worldwide as a Japanese head of state. Although the emperor formally appoints the Prime Minister, Article 6 of the Constitution requires him to appoint the candidate “as determined by the regional parliament” without the right to refuse the appointment. He is a ceremonial figurehead with no independent discretion in Japanese governance.   It is customary for the head of state, particularly in parliamentary systems, to be the one who opens the annual sessions of the legislative branch, for example. B the annual opening of Parliament with the Speech from the Throne in Great Britain. Even in presidential systems, the head of state often formally reports to the legislator on the current national status. B the State of the Union address in the United States of America or the State of the Union address in South Africa. A head of state is often appointed, because of the highest power, as commander-in-chief of the armed forces of that country, who holds the highest office in all military chains of command. The Senate does not ratify treaties – the Senate approves or rejects a ratification decision.